Home Inspector Blog
Home Inspector Blog
Recently we have been doing a little spring cleaning in the summer and trying to do some organizing. I must admit I have a hard time letting go of items “just in case” although I certainly cannot be considered a hoarder in any way. There are several TV shows that cover the topic of hoarding and while they are informative, they tend to show the worst examples of a hoarding disorder.
What is Hoarding?
The generally accepted definition of hoarding is someone who has “persistent difficulty with getting rid of possessions, especially with little or no value”. Like many other issues, it is not an all or nothing condition and various stages of hoarding exist. Generally, for a home inspector this means a hoarded home has items stored outside the normal expected areas in a house such as in stairways, in the middle of living room floors and an excessive amount on kitchen counters.
The Main Problems with Hoarding
The most obvious one to home inspectors is that an unusually large number of belongings in a home makes it difficult to do our jobs. We don’t have the ability to move a significant amount of homeowner belongings, and this can conceal signs of water damage or mold growth. The biggest concern however is safety.
Hoarding and Emergencies
When you think of emergencies, most people think of needing a clear path to escape in a fire or for paramedics to enter. Even with a path cleared that doesn’t mean that fire safety can be ignored. It takes very little time for toxic smoke to overwhelm someone, often in seconds rather than minutes. The more obstacles to walk around, the higher the chances of a tragic outcome.
From a home inspection point of view, there is another potential emergency that few new homeowners think of: access to shut offs. All homes should have at least 2 and possibly 3 or more: they are usually located:
Burst plumbing in particular can do devastating amounts of damage in only a short period of time. Electrical arcs can cause fires if not immediately de-energized and electrocution can occur by touching even a single live wire if the electrical source is not stopped immediately. Some outlets in a home are protected by GFCI (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters) but this is not universally required on all receptacles, particularly in older homes and, like an airbag or a seatbelt should not be 100% relied on to save your life.
Too Many Things are a Liability, NOT an Asset
Of course, many of us find that we have accumulated many more items in our house than we had when we moved in but it is vital that we regularly manage our clutter to keep it from impeding the safe function of our home. Too many assets can actually be a liability. Always keep things in designated storage spots so you will have access to everything necessary to maintain your home and be safe. Your local home inspectors and emergency responders thank you!
There are two main types of safety devices that inspectors look for: Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs) and Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs). Both provide different types of protection: the AFCI generally protects against fire and the GFCI against electrocution.
Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters
AFCIs work by continuously monitoring the electrical waveform and promptly interrupting the circuit if a wave pattern that is characteristic of a dangerous arc that can cause a fire. The best way to think about them is like they are small lightning bolts. Much like lightning, arcs create a large amount of heat that can ignite a fire behind the walls of a home.
AFCIs can be found in both the receptacles on the wall and inside the electrical panel. They can usually be identified with either the term “AFCI” written on them or by a white curly wire in the panel. Starting in 2002, bedrooms were required to have AFCI protection, and it has been expanded multiple times to include most electrical circuits. There are several exceptions that any licensed electrical contractor is aware of (such as bathrooms), and I won’t bore you with quoting the long and confusing Canadian Electric Code. Bottom line is that AFCIs are expensive but serve a valuable role in preventing electrical fires.
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
GFCIs can look very similar to AFCIs (and to make it more confusing it is possible to have GFCI AND AFCI protection in the same area) but serve a different purpose. A GFCI looks for differences in current between the hot and neutral conductors. What exactly does that mean? If the current in the neutral is lower than the hot, it means electricity is travelling where it should not be going. Often this means it is passing through a human body. A GFCI detects this almost instantly and stops the circuit, potentially saving a life.
The language surrounding where GFCIs are required is confusing but the simplest way to look at it is that any electrical outlets within 5-6 feet of a water source need GFCI protection. Water and electricity do not mix, and the combination can be fatal without the safety of a GFCI.
An Important Note
Home inspectors are not electricians or code compliance officers. While I have a working knowledge of electrical codes, I do not cite current codes in my reports. There are two reasons for this:
In other words, if the home predated AFCI and GFCI requirements you do not have to add them to be code compliant unless you perform major renovations. Having said all that, my focus is on safety, and regardless of what the codebooks say dangerous electrical currents do not care when your home was built. Therefore, I always recommend upgrading your electrical system to the latest safety requirements for you and your family’s protection. These two devices serve different purposes, but both are valuable safety features that should not be ignored.